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Inco Terms & Conditions

INCO Terms are internationally accepted commercial terms defining the respective roles of the buyer and seller in the arrangement of transportation and other responsibilities, and clarify when the ownership of the merchandise takes place. They are used in conjunction with a sales agreement or other method of transacting the sale. Below is an example of how INCO Terms work in action. The definitions provided here are the most common uses of each term, but are not the only way these terms are used. Pay close attention to the location listed for each term, as this indicates where payment details change from Shipper to Consignee.

EXW (Ex Works)
(factory, mill, warehouse: your door) Title and risk pass to buyer including payment of all transportation and insurance cost from the seller's door. Used for any mode of transportation.



FCA (Free Carrier)
(pick a place after your origin to start) Title and risk pass to buyer including transportation and insurance cost when the seller delivers goods cleared for export to the carrier. Seller is obligated to load the goods on the Buyer's collecting vehicle; it is the Buyer's obligation to receive the Seller's arriving vehicle unloaded.



FAS (Free Alongside Ship)
(port, after all origin port charges) Title and risk pass to buyer including payment of all transportation and insurance cost once delivered alongside ship by the seller. Used for sea or inland waterway transportation. The export clearance obligation rests with the seller.



FOB (Free On Board)
(port-same as FAS) Risk pass to buyer including payment of all transportation and insurance cost once delivered on board the ship by the seller. Used for sea or inland waterway transportation.



CFR (Cost and Freight)
(destination port-paid to arrival at destination port) Title, risk and insurance cost pass to buyer when delivered on board the ship by seller who pays the transportation cost to the destination port. Used for sea or inland waterway transportation.



CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)
(destination port-same as CFR, but includes insurance) Title and risk pass to buyer when delivered on board the ship by seller who pays transportation and insurance cost to destination port. Used for sea or inland waterway transportation.



CPT (Carriage Paid To)
(place at destination-includes all destination port charges) Title, risk and insurance cost pass to buyer when delivered to carrier or seller who pays transportation and insurance cost to destination. Used for any mode of transportation.



CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To)
(place at destination-same as CPT, but includes insurance) Title and risk pass to buyer when delivered to carrier by seller who pays transportation and insurance cost to destination. Used for any mode of transportation.



DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)
(consignee door-includes all charges origin to destination) Title and risk pass to buyer when seller delivers goods to named destination point cleared for import. Used for any mode of transportation.


DAT – Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)
This term means that the seller covers all the costs of transport (export fees, carriage, unloading from main carrier at destination port and destination port charges) and assumes all risk until destination port or terminal. The terminal can be a Port, Airport, or inland freight interchange. Import duty/taxes/customs costs are to be borne by Buyer.



DAP – Delivered at Place (named place of destination)
Can be used for any transport mode, or where there is more than one transport mode. The seller is responsible for arranging carriage and for delivering the goods, ready for unloading from the arriving conveyance, at the named place. Duties are not paid by the seller under this term. The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place.


Note: EXW, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAT, DAP and DDP are commonly used for any mode of transportation. FAS, FOB, CFR and CIF are used for sea and inland waterway

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